Tim Raine, Bram Verstockt, Uri Kopylov, Konstantinos Karmiris, Rimma Goldberg, Raja Atreya, Johan Burisch, John Burke, Pierre Ellul, Charlotte Hedin, Stefan D Holubar, Konstantinos Katsanos, Triana Lobaton, Carsten Schmidt, Garret Cullen


Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disease with variable degrees of extent, severity, and activity. A proportion of patients will have disease that is refractory to licensed therapies, resulting in significant impairment in quality of life. The treatment of these patients involves a systematic approach by the entire multidisciplinary team, with particular consideration given to medical options including unlicensed therapies, surgical interventions, and dietetic and psychological support. The purpose of this review is to guide clinicians through this process and provide an accurate summary of the available evidence for different strategies.