JR Allegretti, CR Kelly , A Grinspan, BH Mullish, J Hurtado, M Carrellas, J Marcus, JR Marchesi , JAK McDonald , Y Gerardin, M Silverstein, A Pechlivanis , GF Barker, JM Blanco, JL Alexander, KI Gallagher, W Pettee, E Phelps, S Nemes, SV Sagi, M Bohm, Z Kassam, M Fischer
Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Aug 19;27(9):1371-1378.


Abstract


Background: Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a clinical challenge. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a recurrent CDI therapy. Anecdotal concerns exist regarding worsening of IBD activity; however, prospective data among IBD patients are limited.

Methods: Secondary analysis from an open-label, prospective, multicenter cohort study among IBD patients with 2 or more CDI episodes was performed. Participants underwent a single FMT by colonoscopy (250 mL, healthy universal donor). Secondary IBD-related outcomes included rate of de novo IBD flares, worsening IBD, and IBD improvement-all based on Mayo or Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) scores. Stool samples were collected for microbiome and targeted metabolomic profiling.

Results: Fifty patients enrolled in the study, among which 15 had Crohn's disease (mean HBI, 5.8 ± 3.4) and 35 had ulcerative colitis (mean partial Mayo score, 4.2 ± 2.1). Overall, 49 patients received treatment. Among the Crohn's disease cohort, 73.3% (11 of 15) had IBD improvement, and 4 (26.6%) had no disease activity change. Among the ulcerative colitis cohort, 62% (22 of 34) had IBD improvement, 29.4% (11 of 34) had no change, and 4% (1 of 34) experienced a de novo flare. Alpha diversity significantly increased post-FMT, and ulcerative colitis patients became more similar to the donor than Crohn's disease patients (P = 0.04).

Conclusion: This prospective trial assessing FMT in IBD-CDI patients suggests IBD outcomes are better than reported in retrospective studies.